Topic 3: Thermal Physics
Nature of Science
Evidence through experimentation: Scientists from the 17th and 18th centuries were working without the knowledge of atomic structure and sometimes developed theories that were later found to be incorrect, such as phlogiston and perpetual motion capabilities. Our current understanding relies on statistical mechanics providing a basis for our use and understanding of energy transfer in science. (1.8)
Unit Notes
3.1 Thermal Concepts
3.1.1

State the relation between the Kelvin (absolute) and Celsius scales of temperature. Solve examples of typical conversions between the temperature scales.

3.1.2

State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects. Give at least one example and describe the mechanism through which the thermal energy is transferring in that example.
note: make sure you specify which direction the thermal energy is transferred as a result of the temperature difference. 
3.1.3

Define internal energy and describe the types of energies it encompasses.


3.1.4

Describe the temperature change of a substance in terms of what is happening to the internal energy

3.1.5

Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity
note: also state the appropriate units used for each of these quantities 
3.1.6

Apply and describe calorimetric techniques of experimentally determining specific heat capacity and/or studying the transfer of thermal energy

3.1.7

Solve problems involving specific heat capacity and involving calorimetry and thermal equilibrium.

3.1.8

Explain the physical differences between the solid, liquid and gaseous phases in terms of molecular structure and particle motion

3.1.9

Define the following phase changes (i.e. what change is occurring?): melting; freezing, condensation, vaporization, sublimation, deposition;

3.1.10

Describe and explain the process of phase changes in terms of molecular behaviour and internal energy

3.1.11

Define specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporization. Also state the units for each.

3.1.12

Apply and describe an experimental calorimetric technique of determining specific latent heat

3.1.13

Draw and annotate both a heating curve and a cooling curve for a substance going through the phase changes.

3.1.14

Describe and explain the process of evaporation. compare/contrast evaporation with vaporization. Describe and explain the concept of evaporative cooling.

3.1.15

Solve problems involving specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporization. Also solve problems combining one or more specific latent heats and the specific heat capacity (i.e. energy required during a series of phase changes)

3.2 Modelling a Gas
3.2.1

Define Pressure
note: include a conceptual definition as well as a mathematical definition. Also include the SI units for Pressure 

3.2.2

State the equation of state for an ideal gas
note: be prepared to explain what each variable means 
3.2.3

State/describe each of the three gas laws (Boyle's Law; Charles' Law; Pressure Law; Combined gas law)

3.2.4

Solve problems using the equation of state of an ideal gas

3.2.5

State the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas, and explain the macroscopic behavior of an ideal gas in terms of this model

3.2.6

Sketch and interpret changes of state of an ideal gas on pressurevolume diagrams, pressuretemperature diagrams, and volumetemperature diagrams (graphs).

3.2.7

Describe the difference between an ideal gas and a real gas

3.2.8

Define the following: mole, molar mass, Avogadro's Constant

3.2.9

Describe how to experimentally investigate at least 2 of the gas laws (Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, GayLusac (Pressure) Law)

3.2.10

Solve problems involving gas laws (Boyle's Law; Charles' Law; Pressure Law; Combined gas law)
